John Wycliffe

 spelled WyclifWycliffWiclefWicliffeWickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384),[2] an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford, became an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century and is considered an important predecessor to Protestantism.

Wycliffe attacked the privileged status of the clergy, which bolstered their powerful role in England. He then attacked the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies.[3]

Wycliffe also advocated translation of the Bible into the vernacular. In 1382 he completed a translation directly from the Vulgate into Middle English – a version now known as Wycliffe’s Bible. It is probable that he personally translated the Gospels of MatthewMarkLuke, andJohn; and it is possible he translated the entire New Testament, while his associates translated the Old Testament. Wycliffe’s Bible appears to have been completed by 1384, additional updated versions being done by Wycliffe’s assistant John Purvey and others in 1388 and 1395.

Wycliffe’s followers, known as Lollards, followed his lead in advocating predestinationiconoclasm, and the notion of caesaropapism, while attacking the veneration of saints, the sacramentsrequiem massestransubstantiationmonasticism, and the very existence of the Papacy.

Beginning in the 16th century, the Lollard movement was regarded as the precursor to the Protestant Reformation. Wycliffe was accordingly characterised[by whom?] as the evening star of scholasticism and as the morning star of the English Reformation.[4] Wycliffe’s writings in Latin greatly influenced the philosophy and teaching of the Czech reformer Jan Hus (c.1369-1415), whose execution in 1415 sparked a revolt and led to the Hussite Wars[5] of 1419-1434.


  • The Last Age of the Church (1356)
  • De Logica („On Logic”) 1360
  • De Universalibus („On Universals”) 1368
  • De Dominio Divino (1373)
  • De Mandatis Divinis (1375)
  • De Statu Innocencie (1376)
  • De Civili Dominio (1377)
  • Responsio (1377)
  • De Ecclesia („On the Church”) 1378
  • De veritate sacrae scripturae (On the Truthfulness of Holy Scripture) 1378
  • On the Pastoral Office 1378
  • De apostasia („On Apostacy”) 1379
  • De Eucharistia (On the Eucharist”) 1379
  • Objections to Friars (1380)

A translation of some of Wyclif’s shorter Latin works, his Treatise Trialogus, his Treatise against Orders of Friars, and other shorter works.

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