Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

 

Părintele Dumnezeu, supremul arhitect, construise deja, după legile tainicei înţelepciuni, această casă a lumii, pe care o vedem, prea măreţ templu al dumnezeirii… Dar, după terminarea lucrării, făuritorul dorea să existe cineva care să cerceteze cu atenţie înţelesul unei atât de mari înfăptuiri, să-i îndrăgească frumuseţea, să-i admire măreţia. Din această cauză, după ce toate celelalte lucruri au fost duse la capăt…s-a gândit în sfârşit să creeze omul. Dar, printre arhetipuri nu mai avea vreunul după care să plăsmuiască un nou neam; nici printre bogăţii nu mai avea vreunul în care să şadă acest contemplator al Universului. Toate erau deja pline… Preabunul creator a hotărât ca acela căruia nu mai putea să-i dea nimic propriu, să aibă ceva comun, dar cu toate acestea să fie deosebit de fiecare în parte… Aşadar a conceput omul, şi aşezându-l în centru Universului, i-a vorbit astfel:

„O, Adame! Nu ţi-am dat nici un loc sigur, nici o înfăţişare proprie, nici vreo favoare deosebită, pentru că acel loc, acea înfăţişare, acele îngăduinţe pe care tu însuţi le vei dori, tocmai pe acelea să le dobândeşti şi să le stăpâneşti după voinţa şi hotărârea ta… Tu, neîngrădit de nici un fel de oprelişti, îţi vei hotărî natura prin propria-ţi voinţă, în a cărei putere te-am aşezat. Te-am pus în centrul lumii pentru ca de aici să priveşti mai lesne cele ce se află în lumea din jur. Nu te-am făcut nici ceresc, nici pământean, nici muritor, nici nemuritor, pentru ca singur să te înfăţişezi în forma în care tu însuţi o preferi, ca şi cum prin voia ta ai fi propriu-ţi sculptor şi plăsmuitor de cinste. Vei putea să decazi în cele de jos, ce sunt lipsite de inteligenţă; vei putea prin hotărârea spiritului tău, să renaşti în cele de sus, ce sunt divine”

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), Despre demnitatea omului

The potential of human achievement[edit]

Pico’s Oration attempted to remap the human landscape to center all attention on human capacity and human perspective. Arriving in a place near Florence, he taught the amazing capacity of human achievement. „Pico himself had a massive intellect and studied everything there was to be studied in the university curriculum of the Renaissance; the Oration in part is meant to be a preface to a massive compendium of all the intellectual achievements of humanity, a compendium that never appeared because of Pico’s early death.”[citation needed]

Dignity of the liberal arts[edit]

Pico della Mirandola intended to speak in front of an invited audience of scholars and clerics of the dignity of the liberal arts and about the glory of angels. Of these angels he spoke of three divisions in particular: the SeraphimCherubim, and Thrones. These are the highest three choirs in the angel hierarchy, each one embodying a different virtue. The Seraphim represent charity, and in order to obtain the status of Seraphim, Mirandola declares that one must „burn with love for the Creator”. The Cherubim represent intelligence. This status is obtained through contemplation and meditation. Finally, Thrones represent justice, and this is obtained by being just in ruling over „inferior things”. Of these three, the Thrones is the lowest, Cherubim the middle, and Seraphim the highest. In this speech, Mirandola emphasizes the Cherubim and that by embodying the values of the Cherub, one can be equally prepared for „the fire of the Seraphim and the judgement of the Thrones”. This deviation into the hierarchy of angels makes sense when Pico della Mirandola makes his point that a philosopher „is a creature of Heavenand not of earth” because they are capable of obtaining any one of the statuses.[5]

Importance of human quest for knowledge[edit]

In the Oration, Pico justified the importance of the human quest for knowledge within a Neoplatonic framework. He writes that after God had created all creatures, He conceived of the desire for another sentient being who would appreciate all His works, but there was no longer any room in the chain of being; all the possible slots from angels to worms had been filled. So, God created man such that he had no specific slot in the chain. Instead, men were capable of learning from and imitating any existing creature. When man philosophizes, he ascends the chain of being towards the angels, and communion with God. When he fails to exercise his intellect, he vegetates. Pico did not fail to notice that this system made philosophers like himself among the most dignified human creatures.[citation needed]

The idea that men could ascend the chain of being through the exercise of their intellectual capacities was a profound endorsement of the dignity of human existence in this earthly life. The root of this dignity lay in his assertion that only human beings could change themselves through their own free will, whereas all other changes in nature were the result of some outside force acting on whatever it is that undergoes change. He observed from history that philosophies and institutions were always in change, making man’s capacity for self-transformation the only constant. Coupled with his belief that all of creation constitutes a symbolic reflection of the divinity of God, Pico’s philosophies had a profound influence on the arts, helping to elevate writers and painters from their medieval role as mere artisans to the Renaissance ideal of the artist as genius.

Introduction to Pico’s 900 theses[edit]

The Oration also served as an introduction to Pico’s 900 theses, which he believed to provide a complete and sufficient basis for the discovery of all knowledge, and hence a model for mankind’s ascent of the chain of being. The 900 Theses are a good example of humanist syncretism, because Pico combined PlatonismNeoplatonismAristotelianismHermeticism and Kabbalah. They also included 72 theses describing what Pico believed to be a complete system of physics. Pico also argued in this oration that his youth should not discredit any of the content of his 900 theses (he was in his twenties).

Mystical vocation of humanity[edit]

In the Oration he writes that „human vocation is a mystical vocation that has to be realized following a three stage way, which comprehends necessarily moral transformation, intellectual research and final perfection in the identity with the absolute reality. This paradigm is universal, because it can be retraced in every tradition.”[6]

Pico defends philosophy[edit]

Here Pico explains why he chose to become a philosopher. A paraphrase of paragraph 24:

These are the reasons why I decided to study philosophy. And I’m not going to explain them to anyone except those who condemn philosophy. Philosophy is not something to be used scornfully or as insult, but for honor and glory. People are beginning to think wrongly in that philosophy should only be studied by very few, if any at all, as if it is something of little worth. We have reduced philosophy to only being useful when being used for profit. I say these things with regret and indignation for the philosophers who say it should not be pursued because it has no value, thus disqualifying themselves as philosophers. Since they are in it for their own personal gain, they miss the truth for its own sake. I’m going to say, not to brag, but I’ve never philosophized except for the sake of philosophy, and have never desired it for my own cultivation. I have been able to lose myself in philosophy and not be influenced by others who try to pull me away from it. Philosophy has taught me to rely on my own convictions rather than on the judgments of others and to concern myself less with whether I am well thought of than whether what I do or say is evil.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oration_on_the_Dignity_of_Man

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